ALLERGIC DISEASES AND SPORT
The practice of physical activity is an essential factor in the harmonious development of any young adult. They should practice about 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity daily. Something that, these days, we know is not fulfilled by the majority. More active young adults have greater cardiorespiratory fitness compared to sedentary ones.
Individuals with allergies face special challenges in trying to manage the symptoms induced by exercise during sports. Exercise triggers symptoms that impair sports performance. Exercise-induced hypersensitivity includes several allergic diseases, such as exercise-induced asthma / bronchoconstriction, exercise-associated rhinitis, exercise-induced anaphylaxis and urticaria. These problems affect both recreational and highly competitive individuals. Currently, asthma / bronchoconstriction is the most common chronic condition among Olympic athletes (Fitch, 2012). Physical exertion is one of the many stimuli that can produce episodes of airway obstruction in people with asthma. Asthmatics may be less tolerant of exercise due to the worsening of asthma symptoms during sports.
Several scientific articles corroborate the idea that physical exercise helps to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, respiratory allergic inflammation and quality of life. That said, every effort should be made to treat symptoms induced by exercise, in order to allow all individuals with allergic diseases to practice physical exercise without fear of worsening symptoms.
Rhinitis is characterized by inflammation of the nasal mucosa and the presence of one or more symptoms of nasal congestion, anterior (“drop”) and / or posterior rhinorrhea, sternum (sneezing) and nasal itching (itching) (Bousquet et al. 2008) . This affects about 10-20% of the general population and has a higher prevalence in highly competitive athletes (Delgado, Moreira & Capão, 2006). Athletes with rhinitis, if they have nasal obstruction, usually report suffering from sleep disorders, daytime sleepiness and fatigue that can impair their performance (Schwartz, 2008). Nasal symptoms are very common during sports practice. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system induces an improvement in nasal respiratory efficiency. In outdoor sports, with increased ventilation and respiratory rate during physical activity, exposure to aeroallergens and irritating air pollution components is greater.
Exercise is a physical stimulus capable of triggering allergic type syndromes. It is essential that the trainer / Personal Trainer be provided with a medical report identifying the diagnoses, regular therapy and, above all, with an action plan in case of crisis. So together the trainer / Personal Trainer together with the doctor can work on improving the quality of life of individuals who suffer from allergies.
Ana Rita Cativo